Since 2012, many of Portland Public schools have demolished art and PE curricula due to budget cuts, and have not yet been reestablished. Low-income families struggle to provide extracurricular arts & physical activities for their children & many are excluded due to the high cost of such programs. This exclusion facilitates the increased risk of obesity & development incognizance in childhood & adolescents in low-income areas, where significant disparities are already correlated in the US between a child's racial & economic status & the prevalence of childhood obesity (Center for Disease Control & Prevention)

Findings indicate that disadvantaged youth are more likely to participate in tutoring programs and less likely to participate in extracurricular activities such as dance lessons or sports programs. As a result it has been concluded that academic deficits among disadvantaged youths tend to limit their ability to participate in other types of enrichment activities and programs. (

Research has demonstrated that structured out-of-school programs benefit youth socially, emotionally and academically. After-school programs can impact learning and academic success in a number of ways. Participation in after-school programs result in less disciplinary problems, lower dropout rates, better academic performance in school, including better grades and test scores, greater on-time promotion, improved homework completion, and improved work habits. (Little, Wimer & Weiss)