Since 2012, many of Portland Public schools have demolished art and PE curricula due to budget cuts, and have not yet been reestablished. Low-income families struggle to provide extracurricular arts & physical activities for their children & many are excluded due to the high cost of such programs. This exclusion facilitates the increased risk of obesity & development incognizance in childhood & adolescents in low-income areas, where significant disparities are already correlated in the US between a child's racial & economic status & the prevalence of childhood obesity (Center for Disease Control & Prevention)

Findings indicate that disadvantaged youth are more likely to participate in tutoring programs and less likely to participate in extracurricular activities such as dance lessons or sports programs. As a result it has been concluded that academic deficits among disadvantaged youths tend to limit their ability to participate in other types of enrichment activities and programs. (gse.harvard.edu)

Research has demonstrated that structured out-of-school programs benefit youth socially, emotionally and academically. After-school programs can impact learning and academic success in a number of ways. Participation in after-school programs result in less disciplinary problems, lower dropout rates, better academic performance in school, including better grades and test scores, greater on-time promotion, improved homework completion, and improved work habits. (Little, Wimer & Weiss)

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